This philosophical work outlines a system of ethics based not merely on an individual's actions, but also the reasons that motivate his chosen actions. Duties are modes of obligations that persons possess within their respective families and communities. While some persons may recognize and accept their personal duties, other persons will refuse any form of duty. The main difference between these two kinds of individuals is based wholly on their motivations. Individuals who fulfill their personal duties will be motivated by some particular virtue, while individuals who reject their duties will be motivated by some particular vice. Therefore, the motivations behind every individual's will to act necessarily determines the ethical status of his character. Those who are guided by virtue will be mainly responsible for moral acts, while those who are guided by vice will be mainly responsible for immoral acts.